Who was Martin Luther & what did he believe about the Roman Catholic church? What did he publish? What did this lead to?
What denomination resulted?
How did this religious rebellion affect Europe’s government? Describe Europe’s economical and intellectual transformation. Describe the regions in which missionaries spread Christianity. With what did the church of Rome provide western Europe?
Describe religion during the 16th & 17th centuries?
What did religious controversies lead to?
Why did people start to criticize the church?
How did the church treat people with their own religious traditions? What did the laypeople wish for?
Who was Martin Luther?
What technology benefited his cause?
What were his beliefs? What did he think of the church, monasteries, translating the Bible, and the clergy? What and who did he consider religious authority?
Where did Luther inspire a reforming movement against the church? What empire especially liked Luther’s views and why (2 reasons)? Religious laws
Describe the spread of Protestantism and Lutheranism throughout Europe. Describe the reformation in England and why it took place; who was ruling England and why did he create a new church? Who initiated reformation in France?
Where did he organize a Protestant community, and why there? What did he do there?
What did he write?
Where did Calvinist missionaries spread Protestantism? What did they do in these regions? In what 2 places were they most successful? What was the result in Europe of the work of these 3 denominations? How did the Roman Catholic church respond to the Protestants? What was this called?
What 2 reasons led to the Catholic Reformation? What was the goal of the movement? What 2 institutions were important for defining the Reformation and advancing its goals? What was the Council of Trent?
Who composed it and what did they do? Who greatly influenced their decisions? What did they acknowledge and demand the church to do?
What was the Society of Jesus? Who founded it & what’d its members do? Describe the founder’s background. Why’d he create the society? What was a requirement for members? Members were called…? Describe their education.
Why were they such effective missionaries? Where’d they travel? What did religious divisions lead to?
Name the 2 most destructive results.
How long had the belief of witches existed? How did it change in the 15th cent.? What did people believe witches did? Describe witch hunts/accusations and trials (2 types of trials and punishments). Gender and demographic of most “witches?” Why? Where did witch-hunting take place in the world?
What did witch hunts show?
Describe religious wars
List some countries where they took place.
Describe the conflict between Spain and England.
Describe conflict between Spain & the Netherlands
What was the result
What massive war was a result of these religious conflicts?
How did it start?
Who took part?
Motives for entering the war?
Why was the war so significant?
How did the Reformation affect European politics?
Describe the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
Describe the political kingdoms of early modern Europe.
Who dominated the Holy Roman Empire after 1438?
Who was Charles V? What regions did he rule over?
Did he establish a centralized long-lasting kingdom?
What did he focus on doing?
How did he administer his kingdom?
Describe his army. What did he use it for?
What prevented him from imposing imperial rule on most of Europe? Describe foreign challenges.
Describe French and Ottoman challenges
Describe the end of his rule. Did his empire survive?
How was Europe ruled? Which states had economic power? Which were the most powerful states (3)? Their rulers were known as what? Who were the new monarchs of each of these states?
How did they enhance their treasuries?
Taxes & church money
Describe administrative staffs & armies
How did they increase power over nobles?
How affected by...
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