Architectural programming began when architecture began. Structures have always been based on programs: decisions were made, something was designed, built and occupied. In a way, archaeologists excavate buildings to try to determine their programs. Today, we define architectural programming as the research and decision-making process that identifies the scope of work to be designed. Synonyms include "facility programming," "functional and operational requirements," and "scoping." In the early 1960s, William Peña, John Focke, and Bill Caudill of Caudill, Rowlett, and Scott (CRS) developed a process for organizing programming efforts. Their work was documented in Problem Seeking, the text that guided many architects and clients who sought to identify the scope of a design problem prior to beginning the design, which is intended to solve the problem. In the 1980s and 1990s, some architectural schools began to drop architectural programming from their curricula. The emphasis of the Post-Modern and Deconstruction agendas was instead on form-making. Programming and its attention to the users of buildings was not a priority. Now, several generations of architects have little familiarity with architectural programming and the advantages it offers: • Involvement of interested parties in the definition of the scope of work prior to the design effort • Emphasis on gathering and analyzing data early in the process so that the design is based upon sound decisions • Efficiencies gained by avoiding redesign and more redesign as requirements emerge during architectural design. [pic]
The most cost-effective time to make changes is during programming. This phase of a project is the best time for interested parties to influence the outcome of a project. The "whole building" design approach is intended "to create a successful high-performance building." To achieve that goal, we must apply the integrated design approach to the project during the planning and programming phases. People involved in the building design should interact closely throughout the design process. The owner, building occupants, and operation and maintenance personnel should be involved to contribute their understanding of how the building and its systems will work for them once they occupy it. The fundamental challenge of "whole building" design is to understand that all building systems are interdependent. (Source: WBDG Web site, the goal of "Whole Building" design). Description
According to standard AIA agreements, programming is the responsibility of the owner. However, the owner's programmatic direction can vary from vague to very specific. In some cases, the owner does not have the expertise to develop the program and must use the services of a programming consultant. Most programming consultants are either architects or have architectural training, but others have become skilled through experience. Many architects perform programming as an additional service to their standard contracts. Many building type consultants (laboratory, health care, theater, etc.) have expertise in programming components of facilities. Levels of Programming
Programming may happen for different purposes and may impact the level of detail of investigation and deliverables. For instance, programming at the master planning level is more strategic in nature—providing information to building owners to make decisions regarding current and projected space needs and rough budgeting for implementation. Programming at the individual project level provides specific, detailed information to guide building design. An Architectural Programming Process
The following discussion is intended to provide a clear process for conducting the research and decision-making that defines the scope of work for the design effort. It is imperative that the major decision-maker—the client-owner—allows participation of all of the stakeholders, or the client-users,...
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