Ch. 12 Study Guide - AP European History

Topics: Black Death, Pope, Catholic Church Pages: 6 (2324 words) Published: January 19, 2014
1. Pasteurella pestis:
Pasterrella pestis is the disease-causing bacterium that was identified as the cause of the Black Death in 1894 by two bacteriologists, one French and one Japanese, and is known to live in the bloodstream of an animal or in the stomach of a parasite. 2. Fur-collar crime:

After the Hundred Years’ War, during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, many idle noblemen committed crimes of robbery, extortion, and corruption, known as “fur-collar crimes” after the fur worn on their collars, to accumulate large sums of money. 3. Conciliar movement:

The conciliar movement promoted reform of the church through general councils that represented all of the Christian people, and it encouraged a constitutional form of church government. 4. Vernacular literature:

Vernacular literature, literature written in national languages, became widespread in the fourteenth century. 5. Craft guild:
A craft guild was an organization of workers skilled in a particular trade during the Middle Ages. 6. Hundred year’s war:
The Hundred Years' War was a series of battles fought from 1337 to 1453 between England and France for control of the French throne. 7. Joan of arc:
Joan of Arc is most famous for having captained French forces in the Battle of Orleans, in 1429. 8. Babylonian captivity:
The Babylonian Captivity refers to a period in the church’s history, from 1309 to 1376, which resulted from the conflicts between the Papacy and the French crown. 9. Lollards:
Lollards were followers of John Wyclif.
10. House of commons (the “commons”):
The Commons were the representative assemblies made up of knights and burgesses who advised the king on taxation and later came to be a separate house of parliament, the House of Commons, in 1341. 11. Jan Hus:

Jan Hus was a Czech reformer and professor at Charles University who was later burned at the stake for heresy against the teachings of the Catholic Church. 12. John Wyclif:
John Wyclif was an English scholar and theologian who believed authority resided in the church as a whole, rather than in the Pope alone, and helped translate and distribute the Bible in English.

2-3 SENTENCES EXPLAIN IMPORTANCE OF IN MEDIEVAL LIFE & NOTE CHANGES SUBJECT TO IN PERIOD 1. Marriages were almost always arranged and based on monetary and political factors; through marriage, titles and estates were inherited. Also, marriage is a sacrament, so it reinforced the Christian faith of the people. Although, around the time of the Great Famine, many marriages were postponed because there weren’t enough people to work the fields, but later, because of the drastic population losses Europe had suffered after the Black Death, marriages were hastened to try to bring population numbers back up. 2. During medieval times, there was little sense of nationalism in Europe because nations were constantly realigning when lineages died out or were married off, but it was important in bringing the people of a nation together. The later years of the Hundred Years’ War actually promoted the growth of nationalism when each country experienced pride after a victory. 3. The chivalric code was important because it was a moral system that described what qualities and virtues knights should embody (be protective, brave, courteous, disciplined, strong, God- fearing, etc.). But the early stages of the Hundred Years’ War saw violent tactics that were used that broke the chivalric code. 4. The people’s faith was what got them through the hardest times of the Middle Ages – the plague, famines, etc. – and gave them hope that life was going to get better. After the Great Schism, ideas came to light that started to question the authority of the church and gave new outlooks on Christianity. 5. Because most of the people led harsh, routine lives, leisure time and recreational activities permitted them a break and provided entertainment. Also, leisure time allowed medieval artistic culture...
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