Chpater 16 Protestant Reformation 1

Topics: Protestant Reformation, Catholic Church, Protestantism Pages: 37 (1852 words) Published: March 12, 2015
The Protestant Reformation
RELIGION & SCIENCE (1450-1750)

The Protestant Reformation
Started in 1517 by a

German priest named
Martin Luther
Issued a document
called the 95 Theses

Nailed it to a church door in
Wittenberg, Germany
Outlined his issues with the
Catholic Church

The Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther was critical

of the following abuses
conducted by the Catholic

The selling of indulgences

Pope Leo X (above) sold church positions
and indulgences to raise money to rebuild
St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome

Selling church positions
Selling indulgences =
certificates issued by the church
that reduced or canceled
punishment for a person’s sins 
people would buy them to
ensure going to Heaven
Luxurious life of the popes
Corruption and immorality of
some clergy

Martin Luther’s Beliefs
Salvation = came through

faith alone; God’s grace is
freely and directly granted to
Source of religious authority
= the Bible (as interpreted
by the individual), not the
Pope or church leaders
These ideas = created a
massive rift between Catholic
and Protestant Christianity

Spread of Protestantism
Reformation thinking spread quickly

within and beyond Germany thanks
to the invention of the printing press
by Johannes Gutenberg
Luther’s 95 Theses, many
pamphlets, and his German
translation of the New Testament
were soon widely available
As the movement spread to the rest
of Europe, it splintered, creating a
variety of different Protestant

Ex: Lutheran, Calvinist, Anglican, Quaker,
Anabaptist, Puritan, etc.

Spread of Protestantism


Established by John

Calvin in Switzerland
Preached predestination
= God determines the
fate of every person

The Anabaptists
Denied the authority

of local governments

Refused to hold office,
bear arms, or swear

Many lived separate

from society 
viewed it as sinful
Baptized adult
members only

An Anabaptist Immersion

The Church of England
King Henry VIII (ruled from

1509-1547) wanted a
divorce from his first wife
(Catherine of Aragon)

She had 6 children -- only 1
survived (a girl named Mary)
King wanted a male heir to the
King thought Catherine of
Aragon was too old and he
wanted to marry the young,
beautiful Anne Boleyn instead
Problem = the Pope refused to
grant the King a divorce

The Church of England
Result = Henry VIII

separated England
from the Pope and the
Catholic Church

Made himself head of the
new “Church of England”
Kept Catholic practices &
traditions, but denied
authority of the Pope
Had supporters of the old
religion killed

The Church of England
King Henry VIII had the

Church of England end his
marriage with Catherine
& he married Anne Boleyn

Anne bore him a daughter =
Elizabeth I
Henry VIII married 4 more
times after this & only got 1
son = Edward VI (got the
throne, but died in his teens)

The Church of England
Henry’s daughter

Mary tried to
restore Catholicism
when she became

Burned hundreds of
Protestants at the stake
Nicknamed “Bloody

Mary’s sister Elizabeth I

became Queen when Mary
died  blended features of
the Church of England and

Religion called Anglicanism
Pleased most people
Radical Protestants called
“Puritans” wanted to purify the
English Church of all its
Catholic elements  ended up
leaving for North America
where they could have more
religious freedom

Religious Conflicts
1562 – 1598 = violent

conflict between Catholics
and Protestants in France
French Protestants = called

Huguenots = the minority
In one day (in 1572) = about
3,000 Huguenots were
massacred by Catholic mobs

1598 = King Henry IV

issued the Edict of Nantes...
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