Topics: Solubility, Ginger, Solubility equilibrium Pages: 47 (11591 words) Published: January 6, 2014

First of all, we would like to say thanks to God, for giving me the strength and health to do this project work until it done. Not forgotten to our family for providing everything, such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work and their advise, which is the most needed for this project, Internet, books, computers and all that as our source to complete this project. They also supported us and encouraged us to complete this task so that we will not procrastinate in doing it.

Then we would like to thank our lecturer, Prof Yusof for guiding us and throughout this project. We had some difficulties in doing this task, but he taught us patiently until we knew what to do. He tried to teach us until we understand what we supposed to do with the project work.

Last but not least, group members who were doing this project together and sharing their ideas. They were helpful that when we combined and discussed together, we had this task done successfully.

Many modern drugs are available for uses today in market are obtained from many sources such as: Drugs of natural origins
Drugs from chemical processes
Drugs from biotechnological processes
Natural sources of drugs
Plants origins
Plants are biosynthetic laboratory for a multitude of chemical compounds such as glycosides, alkaloids, steroids. The active ingredients might be found in any part (or all parts) of the plant from leaves, root, bark, seeds, fruits, flowers, etc.

Animals origins
Animal organs, tissues, fluids and other animal derivatives can be used to obtain active ingredients. For example: Beef and pork pancreas are the source of the natural insulin sold today Vesicular extracts from sheep and bulls are used to yield prostaglandins

Microbiological origins
Microbial metabolites used as drugs, especially the antibiotics and anti-neoplastic agents are produced by fermentation. For example: A strain of mold Penicillium chrysogenicum produces Penicillin G Streptomycine was isolated from a strain of Streptomyces griseus

Gentamicin is produced by Micromonospora purpurea, an actinomycete

Mineral origins
A naturally occurring, homogeneous inorganic solid substance having a definite chemical composition and characteristic crystalline structure, color, and hardness. For example: Precipitated sulfur is a very fine powder for external use, acting as parasiticide, which is used in the treatment of skin disorders

Drugs from chemical processes
Happens due to the chemical change by chemical action (chemistry)or by any process determined by the atomic and molecular composition and structure of the substances involved. Such a chemical process can occur by itself or be caused by an outside force.

Drugs from biotechnology processes
The use of living organisms or other biological systems in the manufacture of drugs or other products or for environmental management, as in waste recycling which includes the use of bioreactors in manufacturing, microorganisms to degrade oil slicks or organic waste, genetically engineered bacteria to produce human hormones, and monoclonal antibodies to identify antigens.

Synonym: Zingiber
Ginger consists of the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, scraped to remove the dark outer layer and dried in the sun. It is known in commerce as unbleached Jamaica ginger. The plant is indigenous to Asia, but is cultivated in the West Indies, Africa, Australia and Taiwan. Constituents: Ginger about 1 to 2 percent of volatile oil, of which the sesquiterpene zingiberene is the principal constituent and in which many other terpenes and terpene alcohol have been reported. The pungency of ginger is due to gingerol, a yellowish oily substance which is a mixture of homologues of zingerone (4-hydroxy-methoxyphenethyl methyl ketone) condensed with saturated aliphatic, aldehydes,...

References: British Pharmaceutical Codex !973
British Pharmacopeia
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