Pivotal Events in Western Civilization
Start of the Crusades – 1096
The Crusades were events that were sanctioned by the Latin Roman Catholic Church in order to regain what they felt was Holy Land unjustly occupied by Muslims. Many battles were fought to remove the Muslims and after nearly 200 years of constant conflict, only Granada remained as a Muslim stronghold. There were several crusades and each was fought for various political, economical, and religious reasons. The Crusades in their various forms, ultimately failed to completely eradicate the Muslim influence.1 Acre, which was captured by Crusaders, fell and the Roman Catholic Church abandoned its quest. Soon, cracks began to show in the movement and things began to take a turn for the worse. After the Fourth Crusade and attacks on other Christians, the movement began to lose legitimacy. As a result of these action, relations 1between the Eastern Orthodoxy and various Christians are less than ideal and are somewhat strained. To this day, some see the Crusades as a vehicle that encouraged religious intolerance. Recovery of Roman Law – c. 1100
The renewed interest and revival in the study of Roman law had a profound influence during the Middle Ages. Up until the late 11th and early 12th centuries, the law of Western Europe was mostly based on Germanic customs. The differences between Roman law and Germanic custom were like night and day. Germanic laws were tribal and could be varied, while Roman law was based on assumed principles that could be applied and understood by those it was intended to govern. Roman laws were studied in great detail in Bologna, Italy, which became the central point of its study. As a result, Roman law played a major role in the actual practice of law around the world and how it was carried out or interpreted. It influenced church laws, the civil law systems of many European nations, and laid the foundation for the modern legal system in many ways. Renaissance –...
Bibliography: Breisach, Ernst. “Renaissance Europe, 1300-1517,”Speculum Vol. 51, no. 2, Medieval Academy of America: 1976. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2854271 (accessed August 15, 2014).
Brundage, James A. “The Medieval Origins of The Legal Profession: Canonists, Civilians, and Courts,” University of Chicago Press: 2008.
Perry, Marvin, Myrna Chase, James R. Jacob, Margaret C. Jacob, Theodores H. Von Laue. “Western Civilization; Ideas, Politics, and Society, Volume 1: To 1789,” 10th Ed. Boston: Wadsworth, 2013.
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