The Protestant Reformation was a religious movement that sought to reform the Catholic Church. This led to the creation of the new Protestant Church. The Protestant Reformation first broke out in Germany and Switzerland because Germany was not a strong centralized state and many people agreed with the Reformation. The criticism of the Church that helped begin the Reformation included absenteeism of members of the clergy, pluralism that led to absenteeism, the poor behavior of some of the members of the clergy, and the poor education of some of the members of the clergy. Key figures such as Martin Luther, Ulrich Zwingli, and John Calvin influenced the Protestant Reformation, and although it was unsuccessful, the Catholic Church responded with the Council of Trent.
There were three key figures who influenced the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther was one of the most significant people during the Protestant Reformation. Luther believed in “justification by faith alone,” or that faith alone will save you from hell. Luther wrote the 95 Theses which were against indulgences and criticized the Church. He also wrote his three pamphlets; Address to the Christian Nobility, Babylonian Captivity of the Church, and Freedom of a Christian. Luther presented his views on reformation to the Diet of Worms and was declared an outlaw. Another important figure was Ulrich Zwingli. Zwingli was the leader of the Swiss Reformation and was humanistically educated. Zwingli was also did not like the idea of indulgences. He and Luther met at the Marburg Colloquy and although they settled many disputes, they could not agree on transubstantiation. The final important figure was John Calvin. John Calvin was the founder of Calvinism which replaced Lutheranism as the dominant Protestant group. Calvin believed in predestination, or that when you are born God already knows if you are going to heaven or hell.
The Catholic Church responded to the Protestant...
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