Renaissance Humanism was a threat to the Church because it D. emphasized a return to the original sources of Christianity (D) Renaissance Humanism was a threat to the Church because it (D) emphasized a return to the original sources of Christianity—the Bible and the writings of the Fathers of the Church. In that light, humanists tended to ignore or denounce the proceedings of Church councils and pontiffs during the middle Ages. While many Renaissance humanists denounced scholasticism, there was no inherent opposition to it, and many retained support of the late Medieval philosophy. Renaissance Humanism did not espouse atheism, nor did it advance an amoral philosophy; it tended to advance a neo-Platonism through the writings of such individuals as Pico della Mirandola and Marsilio Ficino.
Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam was the author of A. The Praise of Folly A) Erasmus of Rotterdam was the author of (A) The Praise of Folly, which was a criticism of the ambitions of the clergy. The Birth of Venus (B) was a painting by Rafael. More was the author of Utopia (C); Machiavelli wrote (D) The Prince; and Cervantes was the author of Don Quixote.
All of the following are characteristics of Northern Humanism EXCEPT: D. It was very supportive of the Protestant Reformation. D) Few Northern Humanists (exceptions: Melanchthon and Reuchlin) approved of the Reformation: Erasmus criticized laxness in the Catholic Church but refused to join Protestant reformers. Northern or Christian Humanism used studies of ancient languages to make Scriptures available in local languages and to produce good scholarly versions of the writings of the Church Fathers. Northern humanists acknowledged the Church’s use of the Vulgate Latin Bible, mainly with the uneducated, but they themselves tried to study and use only the best Greek and Latin in their translations. During the Reformation, Anabaptism drew its membership mostly from the ranks of the C. peasants (C) Each of the three major Protestant groups—Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anabaptist—relied in major ways on particular social elements. Although Lutheranism drew support from a broad social spectrum, Luther himself was forced to rely on sympathetic nobles of the Holy Roman Empire in order to defend Lutheranism against the Holy Roman Emperor. Calvinism held special appeal for the new middle class, particularly business elements. Anabaptism drew most of its membership from the peasantry in western Germany and the Low Countries. The Colloquy of Marburg in 1529 C. was a debate between Luther and Zwingli that resulted in a formal split within Protestantism (C) At the Colloquy of Marburg in 1529, Luther and Zwingli failed to concur on the nature of the Eucharist and the concept of predestination; this led to the fragmentation of Protestantism. (A) is incorrect because the Catholic strategy was centered on the establishment of new religious orders and the reforms of the Council of Trent. Luther was declared an outlaw by Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521. Charles V’s attempts to reconcile Luther with the Church were confined to debates that occurred prior to 1521. Thomas Wolsey’s fall from power as Henry VIII’s adviser was not related to the Colloquy, but stemmed from the divorce crisis. English Puritanism developed during the reign of Elizabeth I C. because of dissatisfaction with the scope and breadth of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement among those influenced by Calvinist views (C) English Puritanism developed during the reign of Elizabeth I because of dissatisfaction with the scope and breadth of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement among exiles and others who were influenced by Calvinist views. Obviously, (A) is incorrect because the Council of Trent advanced Catholic doctrines; Elizabeth I was interested in consolidating, not extending, Protestantism in England (B); the Jesuit Mission (D) occurred in 1580 and was not related to Puritanism; Puritanism (E) opposed the earlier...
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