Topics: Systems engineering, Logistics, System Pages: 15 (3266 words) Published: March 11, 2014
Regular Paper

System Training Metrics
and Measures: A Key
Operational Effectiveness
Dinesh Verma,1, * John Farr,1 and Line H. Johannesen2

Department of Systems Engineering and Engineering Management, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030


Product Support & Logistics, Kongsberg Defense and Aerospace, AS Missiles and Space Division, Kongsberg, Norway SYSTEM TRAINING METRICS AND MEASURES: A KEY OPERATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS IMPERATIVE

Received 4 August 2002; Accepted 28 April 2003
DOI 10.1002/sys.10047

An assessment framework to make explicit the “cause and effect” relationship between design decisions and their impact on system operations, maintenance, and support is essential to influence new and upgrade program development from the longer-term life-cycle perspective. This becomes even more urgent with increasingly greater utilization of commercial-offthe-shelf (COTS) elements within information and knowledge intensive systems in the commercial (IT, Telecommunication, Banking, Finance) and aerospace domains. These architectures are often characterized by an evolving physical baseline (technology refreshment) driven by obsolescence and end-of-life risk considerations. The first objective of this paper is to present the concept of System Operational Effectiveness (SOE). System Operational Effectiveness serves as a generic framework for a wholistic system assessment by balancing factors pertaining to system performance, availability, process efficiency, and cost. Then, given the significance of system training costs, the results of an industry survey on system training metrics and methods are presented. This survey was conducted to help understand training

*Author to whom all correspondence should be addressed (e-mail;
This research project was supported by Lockheed Martin NE&SS— Undersea Systems and the U.S. Navy, and is an activity of the Systems and Supportability Interface Working Group within the International Council on Systems Engineering (INCOSE) and SOLE—The International Society of Logistics. Systems Engineering, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2003

© 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.




metrics currently utilized within industry with a particular focus on information and knowledge intensive systems. A subsequent objective is to delineate architectural attributes that can be used to assess architectural goodness with respect to training requirements and cost. This is an ongoing research initiative and initial results from this initiative are also presented. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Syst Eng 6: 238–248, 2003

Key words: system operational effectiveness, architecture evaluation, training, training metrics, training methods survey

Increasing complexity of systems, evolving requirements, focus on affordability and profitability, and ever more challenging customer expectations and competitiveness have led premier organizations in defense and commercial sectors to assume the role of system integrators. These organizations are increasingly adopting an evolving business model—focusing on selling and

sustaining a function, a capability, or a solution, rather
than selling systems, system elements, and products.
The DOD thrust towards Performance Based Contracting is in a similar vein [OSD, 2001; U.S. Navy, 2002; U.S. Army, 2002]. A tenet of this thrust is to focus on
contracting for a capability and functionality.
In this context, the system integration team is responsible for managing functional, physical, and operational baselines beyond the deployment phase, and into and during system operational and support phases.

While this role often requires procurement of system
elements (hardware and software) from other vendors,
suppliers, and partners, the system integrator assumes
ownership of overall program and...

References: Int Symp Int Council Syst Eng, Boston, 1996, pp. 1011–
Institute of Defense Analyses, 1990.
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G.J. Hudak, J.N. Martin, and W.D. Miller, Systems engineering metrics, Proc Annu Int Symp Natl Council Syst Eng,
Arlington, VA, 1993.
Thesis, University of Exeter, Exeter, Devon, United Kingdom, 2000.
Eng, St. Louis, MO, 1995, pp. 581–588.
Effective Serviceability and Maintenance Management (Wiley, New York, 1995), and Economic Decision
Analysis (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1998)
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