Tata Motors and Automotive Industry

Topics: Automobile, Tata Motors, Truck Pages: 7 (2171 words) Published: October 26, 2013
The history of the automobile begins as early as 1769, with the creation of steam engined automobiles capable of human transport.[1]:14 In 1806, the first cars powered by an internal combustion engine running on fuel gas appeared, which led to the introduction in 1885 of the ubiquitous modern gasoline- or petrol-fueled internal combustion engine. The year 1886 is regarded the year of birth of the modern automobile - with the Benz Patent-Motorwagen, by German inventor Carl Benz. Cars powered by electric power briefly appeared at the turn of the 20th century but largely disappeared from use until the turn of the 21st century. The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion. Later periods were defined by trends in exterior styling, size, and utility preferences. Modern era[edit]

A 2011 Toyota Corolla, one of the world's best-selling models The modern era is normally defined as the 25 years preceding the current year. However, there are some technical and design aspects that differentiate modern cars from antiques. Without considering the future of the car, the modern era has been one of increasing standardisation, platform sharing, andcomputer-aided design. Some particular contemporary developments are the proliferation of front- and all-wheel drive, the adoption of the diesel engine, and the ubiquity of fuel injection. While all of these advances were first attempted in earlier eras, they so dominate the market today that it is easy to overlook their significance.[according to whom?] Nearly all modern passenger cars are front-wheel-drive monocoque/unibody designs, with transversely mounted engines, but this design was considered radical[by whom?] as late as the 1960s. The modern era has also seen rapidly rising fuel efficiency and engine output. Once the automobile emissions concerns of the 1970s were conquered with computerised engine management systems, power began to rise rapidly. In the 1980s, a powerful sports car might have produced 200 horsepower(150 kW) – 20 years later, average passenger cars had engines that powerful, and some performance models offer three times as much power. The economic crisis of 2008 cut almost a third of light vehicle sales from Chrysler, Toyota, Ford, and Nissan. It also subtracted about a fourth of Honda's sales and about a seventh of sales from General Motors."Economic Crisis". Retrieved 2013-06-03. Exemplary modern cars:

1966–present Toyota Corolla – a simple small Japanese saloon/sedan that has come to be the best-selling car of all time. •1970–present Range Rover – the first take on the combination of luxury and four-wheel drive utility, the original 'SUV'. Such was the popularity of the original Range Rover Classic that a new model was not brought out until 1994.[40] •1973–present Mercedes-Benz S-Class – electronic anti-lock braking system, supplemental restraint airbags, seat belt pretensioners, and electronic traction control systems all made their debut on the S-Class. These features would later become standard throughout the car industry. •1975–present BMW 3 Series – the 3 Series has been on Car and Driver magazine's annual Ten Best list 17 times, making it the longest running entry in the list. •1977–present Honda Accord saloon/sedan — this Japanese sedan became the most popular car in the United States in the 1990s, pushing the Ford Taurus aside, and setting the stage for today's upscale Asian sedans. •1981–1989 Dodge Aries and Plymouth Reliant — the "K-cars" that saved Chrysler as a major manufacturer. These models were some of the first successful American front-wheel drive, fuel-efficient compact cars. •1983–present Chrysler minivans – the two-box minivan design nearly pushed the station wagon out of the market, and presaged today's crossover SUVs. •1984–present Renault Espace — first mass one-volume car of non-commercial MPV class. •1986–present Ford Taurus — this mid-sized front-wheel drive...
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