The Sixth Age: Our Age (1830 to the Present)
Growth: After the French Revolution, which swept the whole of Western Europe, the recovery of the Church was slow. She had to learn a new way of life, to be stripped of her riches and privileges. Churches, monasteries and schools were destroyed and landholdings were taken by the state. Concordats (agreements between Church and Civil authorities to identify the rights of the Catholic Church in an specific areas) were made. Growth:
A citadel is a fortress protecting a town, sometimes incorporating a castle. Pius IX (1846-78) – a successor ofGregory XVI. For two years he pursued a progressive policy in governing the Papal States and granted a constitution. Reforms in the Papal States: [ Pius IX]
He initiated the construction of railways, and the installation of street lighting throughout Rome. He improved agricultural technology and productivity via farmer education in newly created scientific agricultural institutes. He abolished the requirements for Jews to attend Christian services and sermons and opened the papal charities to the needy of them. ___________________________________________________________________
**Concordats – it is an agreements or treaty between the Holy See of the Catholic Church and a sovereign state that deals with the recognition and privileges of the Catholic Church in a particular country and with secular matters that impact on church interest, such as taxation as well as the right of a state to influence the selection of bishops within its territory. **The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes) is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome.
Achievements: In the 2nd half of the 19th century, the Church slowly regained some of her former glory. An intense devotional life invaded the churches. Romanticism extrolled the Church as the mother of art and the guardian of patriotism. Catholic revival groups and new theological schools came into existence. The reconciliation between...
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