TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)
History of TQM
Within late 1970’s until early 1980’s, the developed countries of North America and Western Europe suffered economically decline due to rapid competition from Japan’s ability to produce high quality good at competitive cost. The developed countries start to research about the quality control technique that has been used successfully by Japan over past 50 years, that was the origin of the TQM.
Key concept of TQM
The key concept in the TQM which is used by the Navy in the 1980’s such as: “Quality is defined by customers’ requirements “
“Top management has direct responsibility for quality improvement” “Increased quality comes from systematic analysis and improvement of work processes”
Terminology of TQM
Other than Total Quality Management (TQM) term, there are a few relevant terminology have been used in business improvement strategy. For example are Kaizen, JIT, ISO 9000, Quality Function Development (QFD), Six Sigma, and Zero Defect.
Definition of TQM
TQM is a main point of management approach on accomplished the customers needed by continuously improved in terms of products and services. TQM also defined as a broad system that focuses in customer requirements by achieving continuous improvement in products and services. Besides, TQM in the other words also defined as systematic and integrated approach, minimum cost, attaining customer satisfaction and result in high quality products and services.
2.0 SIX KEY FEATURES OF TQM
There are six feature of TQM such as organization wide, has a process perspective, supported by a quality management system, employees involvement, customer focus and continuous process. The persons whose has been largely associated to ‘quality pioneer’ in the development of TQM such as Deming, Juran, Crosby and Ishikawa. Even though the model used by them is differ, these six elements are endorsed as key elements of TQM. The first feature of TQM is organization-wide. TQM need to cover all aspect of business. The company must have proper organization in order to help the duties to be assigned clearly. The participation of high, middle level and all employees must participate in working toward common goals. In order to achieve the entire value chain, quality management should be covered through production to customer services. It also focused on relationship with external suppliers. Supplier who engaged in the TQM suppliers with has commitment and accredited to quality. The next feature of TQM has a process perspective. A fundamental part of TQM is a focus on process thinking. It focuses on the efficient flow of activity towards the organization rather than within functional department. The process involves series of steps that take inputs from suppliers and convert them into output that are delivered to customers. To ensure the quality of service and product, TQM system required extending of production process to supplies and sub contract. It also necessary to set up specific standards for each type of material to control is quality and change the method of placing order to make it suitable with production process. For example is trading of material in production may account for 70% of final product cost (depends type of product). Thirdly, the feature of TQM is a supported by quality management system. TQM should be supported by document quality procedures and practices to keep the entire TQM process under control. The organization must have strategic planning and systematic approach produce quality product to customer. At the same time to achieve organization vision, mission and goals. The strategic must focus only in formulation of quality product. The fourth one is employee’s involvement. The main important part of TQM is quality of employees. Therefore, all employee need to involved in the production to produce quality product. The company must appoint the employees that have specific qualification...
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