Topics: Tourism, Sustainable tourism, World Tourism Organization Pages: 29 (8494 words) Published: May 27, 2013
EC O LO GIC A L E CO N O M ICS 6 7 ( 2 00 8 ) 4 2 0 –4 29

a v a i l a b l e a t w w w. s c i e n c e d i r e c t . c o m

w w w. e l s e v i e r. c o m / l o c a t e / e c o l e c o n


Using the concept of yield to assess the sustainability of different tourist types S. Becken⁎, D. Simmons
Environment, Society and Design Division, P.O. Box 84, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand

A R T I C LE I N FO Article history: Received 4 November 2007 Received in revised form 7 November 2007 Accepted 18 December 2007 Available online 30 January 2008 Keywords: Yield Tourist types Sustainability assessment Indicators

AB S T R A C T Sustainability assessments have become important tools for decision makers. This research assesses the sustainability of different types of tourists in New Zealand by using the concept of yield and by developing yield indicators in the areas of financial, public sector and sustainable yield. The concept and indicators have been developed in cooperation with the New Zealand tourism sector and therefore provide a sector-driven approach to implement a sustainability assessment. The analysis shows that there are numerous ‘trade-offs’ between indicators when attempting to define the ‘ideal visitor type’. Coach tourists, for example, are the largest spenders and generate the greatest Value Added in tourism on a per-day basis, but they contribute less to the financial sustainability of tourism when the costs of capital are accounted for. Coach tourists are highly concentrated in a few key destinations and at the same time produce substantial amounts of CO2 emissions due to their air travel component. In contrast, backpacker and camping tourists provide greater financial yield and are more dispersed, but they are also the greatest user of publicly provided tourist attractions and therefore come at a higher cost to government than other tourist types. Camping tourists are also contributing considerably to CO2 emissions. The yield analysis proposed in this paper could be a valuable tool for complex policy decision making and identifying strategies that lead to high-yield tourism. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



In response to a growing call for sustainable development, the scientific community has developed a broad range of tools to assess sustainability. These include indicators and indices (Böhringer and Jochem, 2007), product-related assessments and integrated assessments (Ness et al., 2007). Sustainability assessment provides “decision makers with an evaluation of global to local integrated nature-society systems in short and long term perspectives in order to assist them to determine which actions should or should not be taken in an attempt to make society sustainable” (Ness et al., 2007: 499).

Examples of different kinds of sustainability assessments can also be found in tourism. Gössling et al. (2002), for example, calculated the Ecological Footprint (EF) (Wackernagel et al., 1999) associated with tourism to the Seychelles and concluded that in the light of the large footprint associated with long-distance air travel, destinations should seek to attract tourists from close source markets. A similar result was found by Peeters and Schouten (2006) for tourism to Amsterdam. More recently, Patterson et al. (2007) used the EF concept to compare the impact of tourists with that of locals in a province in Italy. Another concept that seeks to integrate more than one sustainability dimension is that of “eco-efficiency”.

⁎ Corresponding author. Tel.: +64 3 325 3838; fax: +64 3 325 3857. E-mail addresses: (S. Becken), (D. Simmons). 0921-8009/$ – see front matter © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.12.025

EC O L O G IC A L E C O N O M IC S 6 7 ( 2 0 08 ) 42 0 –4 29


Eco-efficiency is a ratio of useful outputs to inputs (Jollands et al., 2004) and has been...

References: Becken, S., 2002. Energy use in the New Zealand tourism sector. PhD thesis, Lincoln University, New Zealand. Becken, S., 2005. Towards sustainable tourism transport – an analysis of coach tourism in New Zealand. Tourism Geographies 7 (1), 1–20. Becken, S., Butcher, G., 2004. Economic yield associated with different types of tourists – a pilot analysis. Proceedings of CAUTHE 2004, pp. 73–78. 10–13 February, 2004, Brisbane, Australia. Becken, S., Gnoth, J., 2004. Tourist consumption systems among overseas visitors: reporting on American, German, and Australian visitors to New Zealand. Tourism Management 25, 375–385. Becken, S., Lennox, J., Fitt, H., Butcher, G., 2007. Yield Associated with Different Tourist Types. Lincoln University, Lincoln. Final Report. Böhringer, C., Jochem, P., 2007. Measuring the immeasurable – a survey of sustainability indices. Ecological Economics 63, 1–8. Braungart, M., McDonough, W., Bollinger, A., 2007. Cradle-to-cradle design: creating healthy emissions – a strategy for eco-effective product and system design. Journal of Cleaner Production 15 (13–14), 1337–1348. Butler, R., 1993. Tourism – an evolutionary perspective. In: Nelson, J.G., Butler, R., Wall, G. (Eds.), Tourism and sustainable development: Monitoring, Planning, Managing. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada. Costanza, R., Daly, H.E., 1992. Natural capital and sustainable development. Conservation Biology 6 (1), 37–46. Costanza, R., D, 'Arge, R., De Groot, R., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburge, K., Neem, S., O, 'Neil, R., Parelo, J., Raskin, R., Sutton, P., Van den Belt, M., 1997. The value of the world 's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387, 253–259. Cullen, R., Becken, S., Butcher, G., Lennox, J., Marquardt, M., Simmons, D., Taylor, N., 2005. Public Sector Benefits and Costs
of Tourism. Tourism Recreation Research and Education Centre. Yield Report 1/2005. Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., 1997. Measuring the benefits and yield from foreign tourism. International Journal of Social Economics 24 (1/2/3), 223–236. Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., Fredline, L., Jago, L., Deery, M., Lundie, S., 2006. Concepts of tourism yield and their measurement. Gold Coast: Sustainable Tourism CRCAvailable at (01/11/07) http:// page_id=2&productID=4782006. Gössling, S., Borgström Hansson, C., Hörstmeier, O., Saggel, S., 2002. Ecological footprint analysis as a tool to assess tourism sustainability. Ecological Economics 43 (2–3), 199–211. Gössling, S., Peeters, P., Ceron, J.P., Dubois, G., Patterson, T., Richardson, R., 2005. The eco-efficiency of tourism. Ecological Economics 54 (4), 417–434. Kain, J., Söderberg, H., 2008. Management of complex knowledge in planning for sustainable development: the use of multi-criteria decision aids. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 28 (1), 7–21. Jollands, N., Lermit, J., Patterson, M., 2004. Aggregate eco-efficiency indices for New Zealand—a principal components analysis. Journal of Environmental Management 73 (4), 293–305. Lee, C., Tylor, R., 2005. Critical reflections on the economic impact assessment of a mega-event: the case of 2002 FIFA World Cup. Tourism Management 26, 595–603. Levett, R., McNally, R., 2003. A strategic environmental assessment of Fiji 's tourism development plan. Advisory group version. A study undertaken for the World Wildlife Fund, Fiji. Metti, G., 1999. Global environmental factors and eco-efficiency. Beverage World 82–83. Ministry of Tourism, 2006. International Visitor Survey. Wellington, Available at Ministry of Tourism, 2007. New Zealand Tourism Strategy 2015, Available at Moriarty, J.P., 2006. A value I/O matrix for tourism expenditure, November 2006Available at (10/02/07) http://www.moriarty. biz2006. Ness, B., Urbel-Piirsalu, E., Anderberg, S., Olsson, L., 2007. Categorising tools for sustainability assessment. Ecological Economics 60, 498–508. Northcote, J., Macbeth, J., 2006. Conceptualizing yield. Sustainable Tourism Management. Annals of Tourism Research 33 (1), 199–220. Patterson, M.G., McDonald, G., 2004. How green and clean is New Zealand Tourism? Lifecycle and Future Environmental Impacts. Landcare Research, Lincoln. Patterson, T., Niccolucci, V., Bastianoni, S., 2007. Beyond “more is better”: Ecological footprint accounting for tourism and consumption in Val di Merse, Italy. Ecological Economics 62 (3–4), 747–756. Pearce, D., 1981. Tourism Development. Longman, New York. Pearce, D.W., 1994. Blueprint 3: Measuring Sustainable Development. Earthscan, London. Peeters, P., Schouten, F., 2006. Reducing the ecological footprint of inbound tourism and transport to Amsterdam. In: Becken, S., Lane, B. (Eds.), Tourism and Transport – the Sustainability Dilemma. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 14 (20), pp. 157–171. Special Issue. Reynolds, P.C., Braithwaite, R.W., 1997. Whose yield is it anyway? Compromise options for sustainable boat tour ventures. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 9 (2), 70–74. Rotorua District Council, 2005. Annual Report. Rotorua, Available at Annual+Reports.htm. Shone, M., Horn, C., Moran, D., Simmons, D., 2005. Adapting to tourism: community responses to tourism in five New Zealand tourism destinations. In: Simmons, D., Fairwearther, J. (Eds.),
EC O L O G IC A L E C O N O M IC S 6 7 ( 2 0 08 ) 42 0 –4 29
The host guest encounter in New Zealand: foundations for adaptive planning and management. EOS Ecology, Christchurch. Spurr, R., Dwyer, L., Forsyth, P., Van Ho, T., 2005. Measuring Tourism Productivity and Economic Yield Using TSAs and CGE Models. WTO conference. Statistics New Zealand, 2006. Tourism Satellite Account. Wellington. Stewart III, G.B., 1991. The quest for value. Harper Business, New York. TRREC, 2005. Dimensions and measurements of tourism yield. Yield Report 1. Lincoln UniversityAvailable at (14/05/07) http://www. pdf2005. TRREC, 2006. Enhancing financial and economic yield in tourism: sector performance and business benchmarks report. Analysing New Zealand 's Tourism Satellites Accounts for Measures of Sector Performance and Business Benchmarks
Available at (14/05/07) 2246_Benchmark_s6169.pdf2006. UNDP, 2006. Human development report 2006. Beyond scarcity: power, poverty and the global water crisis. hdr2006/2006. Wackernagel, M., Onisto, L., Bello, P., Callejas Linares, A., López Falfán, I.S., Méndez García, J., Suárez Guerrero, A.I., Suárez Guerrero, M., 1999. National natural capital accounting with the ecological footprint concept. Ecological Economics 29 (3), 375–390. Wang, X., Wang, F., 2007. Dynamic network yield management. Transportation Research Part B: Methodological 41 (4), 410–425. United Nations World Tourism Organisation, 2007. Davos declaration: climate change and tourism – responding to global challenges. Press ReleaseAvailable at (20/11/07) news/en/press_det.php?id=1411&idioma=E2007.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • This is an informative essay about many tourist attractions in europe.
  • Factors that Influence Tourist Traffic in Fort Santiago: A Basis for Promotion Strategy Improvement of Intramuros Administration Essay
  • Tourism and Tourist Attractions Essay
  • tourist destination Research Paper
  • Tourist Essay
  • Tourist Essay
  • Tourist Essay
  • Essay on Tourist Motivations

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free